Acid Mine Drainage is known as the serious environmental issue, which has severe effects. The causes, prediction as well as the acid mine drainage treatment is now a primary concern. Companies are taking initiatives to establish a better way to treat AMD to minimize its effects on the environment and humans. However, according to the research, Acid mine drainage can be reduced by following three basic steps.
- Primary prevention of the acid-generating process
- Second control involves the disposition of acid drainage prevention measures
- Third measure is the tertiary control or the treatment as well as the collection of effluent.
Problems due to Acid Mine Drainage
Following are the problems caused due to the mining
- It contaminates the water by adding acidic elements along with the metallic ions, which surges toxicity of water. It inevitably affects the aquatic life and destroys the food chain
- The reproduction system of aquatic life is damage
- Destroys the infrastructure because of corrosion
Effects of mining
Mining is considered as the dirty lifecycle, which leads to deforestation and releases toxic chemical. During mining process, water mixes with coals and other rocks by creating toxic metals and minerals. The toxic water contaminates streams, plants, animals, humans, soil, and groundwater. The chemicals in the air may lead to serious respiratory issues, and deforestation affects the environment as well as people’s health. The released fly ash or the toxic chemicals in the air causes lung disease especially to those people who live nearby, and mining accidents have killed thousands of people every year.
Acid Mine Drainage Treatment
Following are the methods for Acid mine drainage treatment
- Lime Neutralization
- Carbonate neutralization
- Calcium Silicate Neutralization
- Constructed wetlands
- Ion exchange
Other treatments include sealing of mine portals, limestone dumping, mine capping, and group infection, Successive alkalinity producing systems, modified limestone channel and Anoxic limestone drain.
Innovative treatment technologies of Acid mine drainage are still under process about many recent industries make use of
- Bioreactors Successive Alkalinity Producing Systems
- Permeable reactive barriers
- Biosolids and phytoremediation
The AMDTreat has provided software known as the OSM`s Technical Innovation and Professional Service Suite that is a computer application used to estimate the costs for the mine drainage. Intensive research is still under process from the 1960s, which proceeds the Acid Mine Drainage treatment technology initiative. The major areas are to predict the prevention through AMD.
It is true that Acid mine drain is causing the biggest effects all around the world.